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Mile Marker One

All the MRF White Papers have been added to this repository, except for those with one-time use copyrights.
If you have contributions, please send them to Eric with your suggested Category/Subcategory that it should be placed within...

 

A Bibliography of Helmet and Motorcycle Safety Studies

A Bibliography of Helmet and Motorcycle Safety Studies
by Drew Avery


The following pages are a bibliography of some of the helmet studies and information available out there. Now that you have them what do you do with them? This is where it can get tricky and a little confusing if you are not into statistics. Most of these studies are directed by the author to other members of his or her profession, which is usually the medical or statistical field, and therefore need some translating for normal people to understand.

 

These surveys, for the most part, try to prove that helmets play a statistically significant role in reducing deaths and injuries. Yet, they also tend to treat helmets as the causal factor without taking into account any other factors. It is very easy to present something as statistically significant without it actually being associated or only being partially associated.

 

Confused? All right here’s an example: there is a statistically significant correlation between the Ganges River in India flooding its banks and street crime in New York City. Every time the Ganges floods, street crime goes up.

 

What is the connection? Are muggers in New York somehow tuned in to the Ganges? No, both events happen in the spring when the weather gets warmer. We have two events with no connection, yet it is possible to prove a statistical correlation. Most of the helmet studies use the helmet as the only causal effect without taking into account any other factors, like level of experience, weather or even alcohol involvement.

 

So, why bother with them? Because as Mike Lewis said in the MRF White Papers (Vol. 2), we are in a war, and any veteran can tell you that to win you have to know your enemies’ strengths and weaknesses.

 

You have to be familiar with a survey before you can effectively argue against it. Possibly some of the best rebuttals can be found in the series of articles by Prof. J. Goldstein. His articles, while extremely technical, do an excellent job of showing the difference between causality and correlation.

 

The easiest way to obtain copies of this information is to ask a friendly college student to hit their library. Most of the journal articles can be found there, or can be ordered for little to no cost. The government information is sometimes available at a government repository or can be ordered directly from NTIS. If ordered from NTIS, the cheapest way is to get the microfiches, which are only $9.00 each. A paper copy of a report can run up to $80.00.

 

The MRF is setting up a central library at the main office in Washington, D.C. This should be operational by the end of summer 1995. In connection with that, we are interested in any additional information that is available out there.

Newspaper articles, local studies, state handouts, legal documentation ,etc. can be sent to me at the address below. We are interested in anything pertaining to motorcyclists’ rights, including RICO act and anti-club legislation. All of this will be correlated and made available to state organizations and individuals.

 

DREW AVERY


I’m a 35 year old college student (single). I’ve been riding since the late 70’s, joined ABATE of Washington & ABATE of Colorado in the early 80’s, and am a long time member of the MRF. This project started with a paper for a political science class (the teacher hated it), took deeper root as a project for a research class, and has escalated from there. That’s OK - it gives me an excuse to hang out in libraries.


Since this volume went to press, the bibliography has nearly doubled, and is expected to keep growing. Additional articles, news clippings, etc. may be sent to Drew Avery, PO Box 8777, Norfolk, VA 23503.

 

-----------------------------------

 

Adams, J.G.V. “Public Safety Legislation and the Risk Compensation Hypothesis: The Example of Motorcycle Helmet Legislation.”
Environment and Planning 1 (1983): 193-203

 

Allegrante, John P. “Explaining Safety Helmet Use by Motorcycle Operators Using a Behavioral Intention Model.” Doctoral Thesis submitted to the University of Illinois, 1979

 

Andrews, T.A. “A Six-Month Review of Motorcycle Accidents.”
Injury 10 317-320

 

Arzemanian, Shakeh, Michael Salatka, Craig Anderson and J.F. Kraus. “Geographic Distribution of Fatal Motorcycle Crashes, by Design Type, in Los Angeles, Orange and San Diego Counties from 1983-1985.”
Journal of Safety Research 24 (Summer 1993): 87-95

 

Asogwa, S.E. “The Crash Helmet Legislation in Nigeria: A Before and After Study.”
Accident Analysis and Prevention 12 (1980): 213-216

 

Babi, Iqbal S. “An Evaluation of the Methodology and Results of J.B. Goldstein’s Study, ‘The Effects of Motorcycle Helmet Use on the Probability of Fatality and the Severity of Head and Neck Injuries.’”
Evaluation Review 11 (October 1987): 670-677

 

Bach, B.R. and E.T. Wyman. “Financial Charges of Hospitalized Motorcyclists at Massachusetts General Hospital.”
Journal of Trauma 26 (1986): 343-347

 

Baker, S.P., B. O’Neill and R.S. Karpf. The Injury Fact Book (1984)
Lexington Books, Lexington, Mass.

 

Baker, S.P. and Stephen P. Teret. “Freedom and Protection: A Balancing of Interest.”
American Journal of Public Health 71 (March 1981): 295-297

 

Baker, S.P. and Russell S. Fisher. “Alcohol and Motorcycle Fatalities.”
American Journal of Public Health 67 (March 1977): 246-249

 

Balcerak, John C., Kathleen L. Pancione and John States. “Moped, Minibike and Motorcycle Accidents.”
New York State Journal of Medicine 78 (1978): 628-633

 

Baranick, J., B.F. Chatterejee, C. Greene, Y.C. Cradden et al. “Motor Vehicle Trauma in North Eastern Ohio.”
American Journal of Epidemiology 123 (1986): 846-861

 

Barry, Patricia Z. “The Role of Inexperience in Motorcycle Crashes.”
Journal of Safety Research 2 (1970): 229-239

 

Berkowitz, A. The Effect of Motorcycle Helmet Usage on Head Injuries and the Effect of Usage Laws on Helmet Wearing Rates.
Washington D.C.: NHTSA, 1981, DOT HS-805 851

 

Berkowitz, A. et. al. Motorcycle Fatality Experience Based on Fatal Accident Reporting System Data.
Washington DC: Office of State Vehicle Programs, 1981, DOT HS-805 812

 

Bothwell, P.W. and M.B. Aberd. “Motorcycle Accidents, Protection from Crash Injuries.”
The Lancet 2 (October 1960): 807-809

 

Bothwell, P.W. “The Problem of Motorcycle Accidents.”
The Practitioner 188 (1962): 474-488

 

Bowman, B.M. and L.W. Schneider. Simulation Analysis of Head/Neck Impact Response for Helmeted and Unhelmeted Motorcyclists.
Highway Safety Research Institute, Ann Arbor (1980)

 

Bray, T., R. Szabo, L. Timmerman et al. “Cost of Orthopedic Injuries Sustained in Motorcycle Accidents.”
JAMA 254 (1985): 2452-2453

 

Cairns, H. “Head Injuries in Motorcyclists: The Importance of the Crash Helmet.”
British Medical Journal 2 (1941): 465-471

 

Cairns, H. and H. Holburn. “Head Injuries in Motorcyclists: with special reference to crash helmets.”
British Medical Journal 1 (1943): 591-598

 

Cairns, H. “Crash Helmets.”
British Medical Association 2 (1946): 322-323

 

Carr. W.P., Donald Brandt and Kathryn Swanson. “Injury Patterns and Helmet Effectiveness Among Hospitalized Motorcyclists.”
Minnesota Medicine 64 (1981): 521-527

 

Chenier, Thomas C. and Leonard Evans. “Motorcyclist Fatalities and the Repeal of Mandatory Helmet Wearing Laws.”
Accident Analysis and Prevention 19 No.2 (1987): 133-139

 

Chesham, D.J., D.R. Rutter, Lyn Quine. “Motorcycling Safety Research: A review of the social and behavioral literature.”
Social Science and Medicine 37 (Aug 1993): 419-429

 

Chung, Chia-Juch. “A Cross-Classification Analysis of the Effectiveness of Safety Helmets in Motorcycle Accident Injuries.”
ITE Journal (Sept 1981): 17-25

 

Clark, Davis W. and John H. Morton. “The Motorcycle Accident: A Growing Problem.”
The Journal of Trauma 11 (1971): 230-237

 

Collins, Richard. “A Longitudinal Study on the Effects of Motorcycle safety Education in Accident Prevention.” PhD Diss., Northern Arizona University 1979

 

Cotton, Paul. “Highway Funds is No Easy Ride for Motorcycle Helmet Law Opponents.”
JAMA 268 (July 1992): 311-312

 

Cracchiolo, Andrea, Martin E. Blazina and Donald S. Mackinnion. “Motorcycle Injuries to University Students.” JAMA 204 (April 1968): 175-176

 

Dare, Charles E. et. al. Impact of Motorcycle Helmet Usage in Colorado — Executive Summary.
Denver, Colorado: Colorado Division of Highway Safety, 1978. DOT HS-803 679

 

Dare, Charles E. et. al. Impact of Motorcycle Helmet Usage in Colorado.
Denver, Colorado: Colorado Division of Highway Safety, 1978. DOT HS-803 680

 

Dark, Harris E. “Your Youngster and the Motorcycle.”
Today’s Health (May 1967): 20-24

 

Deaner, R.M. and Fitchett, V.H. “Motorcycle Trauma.”
The Journal of Trauma 15 (1975): 678-681

 

DeWolf, V.A. Effect of Helmet Law Repeal on Motorcycle Fatalities.
Washington D.C.: National Center for Statistics and Analysis, 1986. DOT HS-807 065

 

Dillihunt, R.C., G.L. Maltby and E.H. Drake. “The Increasing Problem of Motorcycle Accidents.”
JAMA 196 (June 1966): 93-95

 

Dorris, Alan L. et. al. Impact of Motorcycle Helmet Usage in Oklahoma. Volume One:Research Report.
Norman, OK: Oklahoma Univ. School of Industrial Engineering, 1978. DOT HS-803 681

 

Dorris, Alan L. et. al. Impact of Motorcycle Helmet Usage in Oklahoma. Volume Two: Supplemental Data.
Norman OK: Oklahoma Univ. School of Industrial Engineering, 1978 DOT HS-803 682

 

Drysdale, Walter F. et. al. “Injury Patterns in Motorcycle Collisions.”
The Journal of Trauma 15 (1975): 99-115

 

Ellingstad, V.S. Impacts of Motorcycle Helmet Law Repeal in South Dakota: Executive Summary
Vermillion, SD: 1979 DOT HS-803 960

 

Engstrom, Alex. “Causes and Consequences of Moped and Motorcycle Accidents.”
Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine 15 (1980): 1:88

 

Evans, L. and M.C. Frick .“Helmet Effectiveness in Preventing Motorcycle Driver and Passenger Fatalities.” General Motors Research Paper (1986) GMR-5602

 

Fenner, H.A. et. al. “Medical Aspects of Motorcycle Safety.”
JAMA 205 (July 1968): 92-93

 

Findlay, J.A. “The Motorcycle Tibia.”
Injury 4 (1972): 75-78

 

Foldvary, L.A. and Lane J.C. “The Effect of Compulsory Safety Helmets on Motorcycle Accident Fatalities.” Journal of the Australian Road Research Board 2 (1964): 7-14

 

Foley, William J. “Motorcycle Accidents Among University of Michigan Students - 1966.”
University of Michigan Medical Center Journal 34 (1968): 146-147

 

Goldstein, J.B. “The Effect of Motorcycle Helmet Use on the Probability of Fatality and the Severity of Head and Neck Injuries.”
Evaluation Review 10 (June 1986): 355-375

________. “Motorcycle Helmet Effectiveness: A Reply.”
Evaluation Review 12 (February 1988): 76-84

________. “The Effect of Motorcycle Helmet use on Motorcycle Fatalities: An Econometric Analysis”
(1989) Department of Economics, Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Maine

________. “Self-Insurance: The Case of Motorcycle Helmets”
(1989) Department of Economics, Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Maine

________. “Review of Helmet and Helmet Law Effectiveness Studies”
(1988) Department of Economics, Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Maine

________. “Additional Reviews of Helmet Studies”
(1991) Department of Economics, Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Maine

 

Gordon, Stephen. et. al. Field of View With and Without Motorcycle Helmets.
Washington DC: NHTSA Office of Research and Development, 1975. DOT HS-801 758

 

Graf, L., R.W. Blair, J.B. Weisbusch et. al. Morbidity and Mortality Associated With Helmet Wearing Among Motorcyclists.
Presented to American Public Health Association, 1978

 

Graham, John D. and Yuongnee Lee. “Behavioral Response to Safety Regulations.”
Policy Sciences 19 (1986): 253-273

 

Graham, J. Wallace. “Fatal Motorcycle Accidents.”
Journal of Forensic Sciences 14 (1969): 79-86

 

Gustilo, Ramon B., et. al. “Motorcycle Injuries.”
Minnesota Medicine 48 (1965): 489-491

 

Gustilo, Ramon B. “Motorcycle Injuries.”
Minnesota Medicine 50 (1967): 533-535

 

Haddad, J.P. et. al. “Motorcycle Accidents: A Review of 77 Patients Treated in a Three-Month Period.”
The Journal of Trauma 16 (1979): 550-557

 

Hart, D.N.J., P.W. Cotter and W.A.A.G Macbeth. “Christchurch Traffic Survey: Part Two, Victims and Statistics.”
The New Zealand Medical Journal 81 (June 1975): 542

 

Hartunian, Nelson S., Charles N. Smart, Thomas R. Willemain and Paul Zador. “The Economics of Safety Deregulations: Lives and Dollars Lost Due to Repeal of Motorcycle Helmet Laws.”
Journal of Health, Politics, Policy and Law 8 (Spring 1983): 77-98

 

Heilman, D.R., J.B. Weisbuch, R.W. Blair and L.L. Graf. “Motorcycle-Related Trauma and Helmet Usage in North Dakota.”
Annuals of Emergency Medicine 11 (1982): 659-664

House of Representatives. Public Works and Transportation Committee’s Surface Transportation Subcommittee, Statement of Wayne T. Curtin on Proposed National Highway System. 3 March 1994

 

Hurt, H.H. et. al. Motorcycle Accident Cause Factors and Identification of Countermeasures, Volume One — Technical Report.
Los Angeles, CA: University of Southern California, Traffic Safety Center, 1981. DOT HS-805 862

 

Hurt, H.H. et. al. Motorcycle Accident Cause Factors and Identification of Countermeasures, Volume Two — Appendix and Supplemental.
Los Angeles, CA: University of Southern California, Traffic Safety Center, 1981. DOT HS-805 863

Impacts of Motorcycle Helmet Law Repeal in South Dakota.


Vermillion, SD: Human Factors Lab, South Dakota University, 1979. DOT HS-803 996

In Support of Voluntary Helmet Use.
American Motorcyclist Association: Government Relations Department, 1993

 

Jamieson, Kenneth G. and D’Arcy Kelly. “Crash Helmets Reduce Head Injuries.”
Medical Journal of Australia 2 (1973): 806-809

 

Jatras, Kathy P. Motorcycles Fatal Accident Reporting System, Special Report on Motorcycles.
National Center for Statistics and Analysis, 1978 DOT HS-803186

 

Jonah, Brian A. and Nancy E. Dawson. “Validation of the Motorcycle Operator Skill Test.”
Accident Analysis and Prevention 11 (1979): 163-171

 

Jonah, Brian A., Nancy E. Dawson and B.W. Bragg. “Predicting Accident Involvement With the Motorcycle Operator Skill Test.”
Accident Analysis and Prevention 13 No. 4 (1981): 307-318

 

Jonah,Brian A., Nancy E. Dawson and B.W. Bragg. “Are Formally Trained Motorcyclists Safer?”
Accident Analysis and Prevention 14 (1982): 247-255

 

Kraus, J.F., R.S. Riggins and C.E. Franti. “Some Epidemiologic Features of Motorcycle Collision Injuries.”
American Journal of Epidemiology 102 (1975): 75-109

 

Kraus, J.F., R.S. Riggens, C.E. Franti and S.L. Johnson. “Trends in Deaths Due to Motorcycle Crashes and Risk Factors in Injury Collisions.”
Accident Analysis and Prevention 8 (1976): 247-255

 

Kelly, A.B. “Motorcycles and Public Apathy.”
American Journal of Public Health 66 (1976): 475-476

 

Lee, J.A.H. “Motorcycle Accidents to Male Teenagers: A Contemporary Epidemic.”
Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 56 (1963): 365-367

 

Lewin, Walpole and W.F.C. Kennedy. “Motorcyclists, Crash Helmets and Head Injuries.”
British Medical Journal 1 (1956): 1251-1259

 

Losee, John M. and William Q. Sturner. “A Survey of Rhode Island Motorcycle Fatalities During 1975-1976.” Rhode Island Medical Journal 33-34

 

Lummis, Michael L. et. al. Impact of the Repeal of the Kansas Motorcycle Helmet Law: An Executive Summary.
Kansas City, Kansas: Kansas Univ. Coll. of Health Sciences, 1979 DOT HS-803 959

 

Luna, Gregory K., Michael Copass, Michael R. Orekovich and C.J. Carrico. “The Role of Helmets in Reducing Head Injuries from Motorcycle Accidents: A Political or Medical Issue?”
The Western Journal of Medicine 135 (August 1981): 89-92

 

Luna, Gregory K., R.V. Maier, L. Sowder, M.K. Copass and M.R. Oreskovich “The Influence of Ethanol Intoxication on Outcome of Injured Motorcyclists.”
The Journal of Trauma 24 (August 1984): 695-700

 

Lynn, C.W. Repeal and Modification of Mandatory Motorcycle Helmet Legislation.
Charlottesville: Virginia Highway and Transportation Research Council, 1978. VHTRC 78-R3

 

Mack, Rae. “Why the Navy Makes You Wear All That Stuff When You Ride a Motorcycle.”
Safetyline (1985): 16-18

 

McDavid, James C., Barbara A. Lohrmann and George Lohrmann. “Does Motorcycle Training Reduce Accidents?
Evidence from a Longitudinal Quasi-Experimental Study.”
Journal of Safety Research 20 (1989): 61-72

 

McPherson, Kenard et. al. The Development and Evaluation of a Motorcycle Skill Test.
Alexandria VA: National Public Services Research Inst., 1976. DOT HS-802 077

 

McPherson, L. and A.J. McKnight. “Task Analytic Approach to Development of a Motorcycle Operator License Skill Test.”
Human Factors 18(4) 351-360

 

McSwain, Norman E. and Michael Lummis. “Impact of Repeal of Motorcycle Helmet Law.”
Surgery, Gynecology and Obstetrics 151 (Aug 1980): 215-224

 

McSwain, N.E. et. al. Impact of the Reenactment of the Motorcycle Helmet Law in Louisiana.
New Orleans, LA: Tulane University, 1984. DOT HS-806 760

 

Mortimer, Rudolf G. “Evaluation of the Motorcycle Rider Course.”
Accident Analysis and Prevention 16 (1984): 63-71

________. “A Further Evaluation of the Motorcycle Rider Course.”
Journal of Safety Research 10 (1988): 187-196

“Motorcycle Accident Fatalities.”
Statistical Bulletin 54 (1973): 9-11

“Motorcyclists’ Injuries and Crash Helmets.”
British Medical Journal 1 (June 1977): 1491-1492

 

Muller, Andreas. “Evaluation of the Costs and Benefits of Motorcycle Helmet Laws.”
American Journal of Public Health 70 (June 1980): 586-592

National Center for Statistics and Analysis. 1991 Motorcycle Fatal Crash Facts.
NTIS TD 8.2:TG67/13

National Center for Statistics and Analysis.
Traffic Safety Facts, 1992, Motorcycles. NTIS TD 8.2:TG67/13

 

Perkins, R.J. “Perspectives on the Public Good.”
American Journal of Public Health 71 (March 1981): 294-295

 

Peter, K. and G. Krantz. “Head and Neck Injuries to Motorcycle and Moped Riders — with special regard to the effect of protective helmets.”
Injury 16 (1984): 253-257

 

Pieron, A.P and B.J.S. Grogono. “Two Wheel Trauma.”
Manitoba Medical Review 46 (1966): 334-337

 

Prinzinger, Joseph M. “The Effect of the Repeal of Helmet Use Laws on Motorcycle Fatalities.”
Atlantic Economic Journal 10 (1982): 36-39

 

Reid, R.L. and Chester L. Ward. “Motorcycle/Motor Scooter Hazards in a Military Population.”
Military Medicine 113 (1968): 983-984

 

Richardson, Henri A. A Motorcycle Safety Helmet Study.
Washington DC: Office of Accident Investigation and Data Analysis 1974.

 

Rivera, Frederick P., Barbara G. Dicker, Abraham B. Bergman, Joseph Dacey and Clifford Herman. “The Public Cost of Motorcycle Trauma.” JAMA 260 (July 1988): 221-223

 

Robertson, Leon S. “An Instance of Effective Legal Regulation: Motorcyclist Helmet and Daytime Headlamp Laws.”
Law and Society Review 10 (spring 1976): 467-477

 

Russo, Pearl K. “Easy Rider — Hard Facts On Motorcycle Helmet Laws.”
New England Journal of Medicine 299 (1978): 1074-1076

 

Smith, Bruce and Louis Dehner. “Fatal Motorcycle Accidents of Military Personnel.”
Military Medicine 134 (1969): 1477-1487

 

Sosin, Daniel, Jeffery J. Sacks and Patricia Holmgreen. “Head Injury-Associated Deaths from Motorcycle Crashes and Relationship to Helmet Use Laws.”
JAMA 264 (November 1990): 2395-2399

 

Sosin, Daniel and Jeffery J. Sacks. “Motorcycle Helmet Use Laws and Head Injury Prevention.”
JAMA 267 (March 1992): 1649-1651

 

Supramaniam, Veerappan, Gerald Van Belle and John Sung. “Fatal Motorcycle Accidents and Helmet Laws in Peninsular Malaysia.”
Accident Analysis and Prevention 16 (1984): 157- 162

 

Tonge, J.I. et. al. “Traffic-Crash Fatalities (1968-1973): Injury Patterns and Other Factors.”
Medicine, Science and the Law 17 (1977): 7-24

 

Watson, Geoffrey S., Paul L. Zador and Alan Wilks. “The Repeal of Helmet Use Laws and Increased Motorcyclist Mortality in the United States, 1975-1978.”
American Journal of Public Health 70 (June 1980): 579-585

 

Watson, Geoffrey S., Paul L. Zador and Alan Wilks. “Helmet Use, Helmet Use Laws and Motorcyclist Fatalities.” American Journal of Public Health 71 (March 1981): 297-300

 

Weiss, Andrew. “The Effects of Helmet Use on the Severity of Head Injuries in Motorcycle Accidents.”
Journal of the American Statistical Association 87 (March 1992): 48-56

 

Williams, A.F., Marvin J. Ginsburg and P.F. Burchman. “Motorcycle Helmet Use in Relation to Legal Requirements.”
Accident Analysis and Prevention 11 (1979): 271-273

 

Williams, M.J. and E.R. Hoffmann. “Alcohol Use and Motorcycle Accidents.”
Accident Analysis and Prevention 11 (1979): 199-207

 

Zettas, J.P., Paul Zettas and Bunsri Thanasophon. “Injury Patterns in Motorcycle Accidents.”
The Journal of Trauma 19 (1979): 833-836

 

---------------------

 

Supplement No. 1, September 1995

by Drew Avery


This Supplement should be appended to Volume 3 of the MRF White Papers, in which six pages of this bibliography are published. The eight pages of this Supplement contain entries that were not available in time to be included in Volume 3, due to publication timelines.

 

Abrams, B. “Night Vision, Visual Perception and Increasing Motorcycle Conspicuity.”
Proceedings: International Motorcycle Safety Conference (1990): Motorcycle Safety Foundation

 

Bayless, J.D. Helmet Laws: A Review of Selected Recent Research Findings.
Des Moines, IA. 1992 Iowa Advisory Council on Head Injuries

 

Billheimer, Stephen. “Evaluation Activities in Support of the California Motorcyclists Safety Program.” Proceedings: International Motorcycle Safety Conference (1990): Motorcycle Safety Foundation

 

Bloomquist, James. “New Funding Sources Help Expand Motorcycle Rider Education Courses.”
Journal of Traffic Safety Education 23 (1976): 19

 

Brun-Cassan, F., J.C. Vincent, A. Fayon and C. Tarriere. “Investigation of a Series of Representative Experimental Collisions Between Automobiles and Two-Wheeled Vehicles, with Specific Analysis of Severity of Head Injuries.”
Accident Reconstruction Technologies (1990): Society of Automotive Engineers

 

Buchanan, Lewis S. and Leroy W. Dunn. “Progress in Motorcycle Safety Education.”
Journal of Traffic Safety Education 25 (1978): 8

 

Burzloff, Joyce Adele. “An Analysis and Evaluation of a Pilot Course in Motorcycle Education for High School Students.”
Thesis submitted to Northern Illinois University, 1970

 

Careme, L.M.M. “Collision Dynamics and Injury Causation in Motorcycle Accidents.”
Proceedings: International Congress and Exposition (1990): Society of Automotive Engineers SAE Paper 900745

 

Carraro, Barbara “Motorcycle Accidents in 1974.”
Traffic Safety 75 (1975): 14-38

________ “Motorcycle Accidents in 1975.”
Traffic Safety 76 (1976): 16-19, 35-39

________ “Motorcycle Accidents in 1976.”
Traffic Safety 78 (1978): 8-11, 27-30

________ “Motorcycle Accidents in 1976.”
Traffic Safety 78 (1978): 8-11, 27-30

 

Chatterton-Ross, J.W. “European Licensing Regimes: The Effect on Safety.”
Proceedings: International Motorcycle Safety Conference (1990): Motorcycle Safety Foundation

 

Chinn, B.P. and H. Karimi. “Leg Protection for a Sports Motorcycle.”
Proceedings: International Congress and Exposition (1990): Society of Automotive Engineers SAE Paper 900748

 

Chinn, B.P., G.L. Donne and P.D. Hopes. “Motorcycle Rider Protection in Frontal Impacts.”
Accident Reconstruction Technologies (1990): Society of Automotive Engineers SAE Paper 856128

 

Chinn, B.P., P. Hopes and M.A. Maccaulay. “Leg Protection for Riders of Motorcycles.”
Accident Reconstruction Technologies (1990): Society of Automotive Engineers SAE Paper 856121

 

Claybrook, Joan. “Re-enactment of Helmet Use Laws Urged by D.O.T.”
Traffic Safety 79 (1979): 21

 

Collins, Roland. “Conspicuity for All to See.”
Proceedings: International Motorcycle Safety Conference (1990): Motorcycle Safety Foundation

 

Cotter, R.D. and D.J. David. “Motorcyclist Craniofacial Injury Patterns.”
Proceedings: International Motorcycle Safety Conference (1990): Motorcycle Safety Foundation

 

Cumming, Bruce. “Getting and Keeping Support for Your Motorcycle Education Program.”
Journal of Traffic Safety Education 22 (1975): 9-10

 

Dahlstedt, Sven. “A Comparison of the Visibility of Various Motorcycle Appearances.”
Proceedings: International Motorcycle Safety Conference (1990): Motorcycle Safety Foundation

 

Danner, M., K. Langwieder and A. Sporner. “Accidents of Motorcyclists Increase of Safety by Technical Measures on the Basis of Knowledge Derived from Real-Life Accident.”
Accident Reconstruction Technologies (1990): Society of Automotive Engineers SAE Paper 856123

 

Dominguez, G. and P. Sliney. “California Motorcyclist Safety Program.”
Proceedings: International Motorcycle Safety Conference (1990): Motorcycle Safety Foundation

 

Donne, G.L. “Research into Motorcycle Conspicuity and Its Implementation.”
Proceedings: International Congress And Exposition (1990): Society of Automotive Engineers SAE Paper 900749

 

Donne G.L. and P.M.F. Watson. “Aspects of Motorcycle Braking.”
Accident Reconstruction Technologies (1990): Society of Automotive Engineers SAE Paper 856127

 

DuPlooy, D. “Motorcycle Training in South Africa.”
Proceedings: International Motorcycle Safety Conference (1990): Motorcycle Safety Foundation

 

Ellis, Richard. “A Multiple Motorcycle Facility.”
Journal of Traffic Safety Education 25 (1978): 23

 

Engstrom, Alex. “Moped and Motorcycle Accidents: a Followup.”
Learkartidningen 79 (1982): 2109-2110

 

Finnis, M.P. “Airbags and Motorcycles: Are They Compatible?”
Proceedings: International Congress and Exposition (1990): Society of Automotive Engineers SAE Paper 900744

 

Flynn, Lois. Motorcycles: A Subject Bibliography
Wash. D.C.: 1977. NHTSA DOT HS-802 146

 

Fries, T.R., J.R. Smith and K.M. Cronrath. “Stopping Characteristics for Motorcycles in Accident Situations.” Accident Reconstruction Technologies (1990): Society of Automotive Engineers SAE Paper 890734

 

Goodnow, R.K. “Injury Severity, Medical Costs and Associated Factors for Helmeted and Unhelmeted Motorcyclist Crash Costs Transported to Hospitals in Amarillo, Austin, Corpus Christi and San Antonio Texas.”
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